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Showing posts from October, 2019

Bacteria commits suicide to prevent Virus from infecting other Bacterial population.

Bacteria have different defense mechanisms to protect themselves from the bacteriophage (Virus) attack. Some of the most prominent defense systems are the Restriction modification system and the CRISPR Cas system.

Cohen et al. have discovered a new Bacterial defense mechanism in some Bacteria like VibrioCholerae. These Bacteria use a very conserved mechanism called cGAS-STING which is very prominent in the innate immunity of animals. This pathway operates through the synthesis of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP).

When a virus infects Bacteria, cGAS proteins produce

Indian scientists from IGIB and ICAR have successfully cloned a superior breeding bull.

Indian Researchers from ICAR and IGIB have successfully cloned a superior breeding bull of Murrah buffalo, the best dairy breed of buffalo. They used Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Technology to create an embryo of a bull. SCNT is a technology where somatic cells are used as a source of Nucleus. In this research, they have used skin cells and semen derived cells to create an embryo. They then transferred the embryos to buffaloes. The buffaloes became pregnant and gave birth a healthy bull.

The healthy calf which is now 40 months old. They then checked the quality of the semen and were found to have the same qualities as other donor sperms. This method of production can help to produce breeding bulls to reduce dependency on conventional methods of bull production. References: 1.Selokar, N.L et al. Successful cloning of a superior buffalo bull. Sci.Rep. 9,11366(2019) Pubmed: 31388074